Menstrual disorders are disorders that occur in the menstrual cycle. There are a variety of menstrual disorders that can be experienced by women, ranging from menstrual blood that is too little or too much , menstrual pain , until depression before menstruation or premenstrual dysphoric disorder . Come on, recognize the symptoms and causes in the following review!
A normal menstrual cycle occurs every 21-35 days, with menstrual periods of about 4-7 days. But sometimes, this menstrual cycle can be disrupted.
Menstrual disorders can include menstrual bleeding that is too much or too little, irregular menstrual cycles, menstruation that occurs more than 7 days, no menstruation for more than 3 months, or even never menstruate at all.
Menstrual disorders can also be accompanied by severe complaints, such as pain and severe cramps, to depression before menstruation.
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However, it is very necessary to consult your doctor for a better diagnostics to receive the best treatment. This is because, it might be due to diseases like; ovarian cyst, uterine polyps, adenomyosis and so on.
Types of Menstrual Disorders that You Need to Watch Out for
In addition to being able to interfere with daily activities, certain types of menstrual disorders need to be watched out because they can increase the risk of fertility problems. Menstrual disorders that are common can be divided into five types, namely:
Amenorrhoea is divided into two, namely primary and secondary amenorrhoea. Primary amenorrhoea is a condition in which a woman has not experienced menstruation for up to 16 years.
Whereas secondary amenorrhoea is a condition in which a woman of childbearing age who is not pregnant and has menstruated before, stops getting menstruation for 3 months or more.
Both types of amenorrhea have different causes. Primary amenorrhoea can be caused by genetic abnormalities, brain disorders that regulate menstrual hormones, or problems with the ovaries or uterus.
While the causes of secondary amenorrhoea are:
- Excessive weight loss.
- Certain diseases, such as thyroid disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) , and brain tumors in the pituitary gland or pituitary.
- Uterine disorders, such as myoma or polyps in the uterus.
- Severe stress.
- Side effects of drugs, such as chemotherapy, menstrual delay drugs , and antidepressants.
- Use of contraception, such as birth control pills, injectable birth control, and IUD.
In addition, malnutrition or malnutrition and excessive exercise can also cause women to experience amenorrhoea.
Dysmenorrhoea is a condition in which women experience pain during menstruation, generally on the first and second day of menstruation. Symptoms include pain or cramps in the lower abdomen that continue, and sometimes spread to the lower back and thighs. The pain can also be accompanied by headaches, nausea, and vomiting.
This dysmenorrhoea can occur because of high levels of the hormone prostaglandin during the first day of menstruation. After a few days, this hormone levels will be reduced to make menstrual pain subsided. This type of menstrual pain will usually begin to decrease with age or after giving birth.
Apart from prostaglandin, dysmenorrhoea can also occur due to abnormalities in the female reproductive system , such as:
- Myoma uterus
- Cysts or tumors in the uterus
- Pelvic inflammation
- Use of contraceptives in the womb (IUD)
In contrast to normal dysmenorrhoea due to an increase in the hormone prostaglandin, dysmenorrhoea due to certain diseases will usually last longer and worsen with age.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual disorder in the form of excessive menstrual blood loss or in excessive amounts, thereby disrupting daily activities. This includes the duration of menstruation that lasts more than normal menstruation, which is more than 5-7 days.
Women with menstrual disorders menorrhagia will experience the following complaints:
- There is too much blood coming out of the vagina, so you have to replace the pads every hour.
- Must use two pads to accommodate bleeding.
- Must wake up to replace the pads during sleep.
- Experiencing symptoms of anemia , such as weakness, pale, or shortness of breath.
- Removing blood clots for more than one day.
Menorrhagia can be caused by a variety of things, ranging from dietary changes, frequent exercise, hormonal disorders, infections or inflammation in the vagina and cervix, thyroid disorders, myoma and polyps in the uterus, blood clotting disorders, to uterine cancer or cervical cancer .
Oligomenorrhea is a condition when a woman seldom experiences menstruation, that is if her menstrual cycle is more than 35-90 days or has menstruation less than 8-9 times in a period of a year.
Oligomenorrhea is often experienced by adolescents entering puberty and women entering menopause. Menstrual disorders are a result of hormonal activity that is not stable in these phases.
In addition, there are several other things that might be the cause of oligomenorrhea , namely:
- Use of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills or injectable birth control.
- Frequent exercise or strenuous physical activity.
- Ovulation disorders .
- Certain diseases, such as diabetes, thyroid disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
- Psychological problems, such as stress and depression.
- Side effects of certain drugs, such as antipsychotics and antiepileptics.
5. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
Towards menstruation, not a few women experience mild pain or abdominal cramps, headaches, and psychological complaints, such as mood swings, feeling anxious, anxious, and easily emotional. Symptoms that appear close to coming this month are called PMS or premenstrual syndrome .
However, if PMS symptoms are felt to be severe enough to interfere with daily activities, then this condition is called PMDD. In addition to menstrual pain that is accompanied by headache, PMDD symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, overeating, difficulty concentrating , feeling weak and not energized, until the ideas or thoughts of suicide.
The cause of PMDD and PMS is not known with certainty, but it is suspected due to chemical disorders in the brain that regulate mood. One of these chemicals is serotonin .
In addition, there are several things that are thought to have contributed to the emergence of this condition, such as:
- Rarely exercise
- Thyroid disease
- Alcohol consumption and drug use
To determine the cause of menstrual disorders, a series of examinations is needed by a doctor. This examination includes a review of menstrual history, physical examination, and supporting tests in the form of blood tests, to ultrasound, hysterosalpingography , and MRI.
Some other tests that may be done to find the cause of menstrual disorders are pap smears , uterine biopsy, and hysteroscopy.
Treatment for each type of menstrual disorder is different, depending on the cause. Therefore, you are advised to consult a doctor in order to get the appropriate treatment. Management of menstrual disorders can include the administration of medicines to surgery.
Menstrual disorders that occur only occasionally are usually classified as normal and nothing to worry about. However, if the symptoms often appear and have been going on for a long time, you are advised to consult a doctor immediately .
Here are lifestyle and home remedies that can help you deal with menstrual disorders:
- Dietary factors: dietary adjustments starting about 14 days before menstruation can help some people with mild menstrual disorders, such as cramps. General guidelines for a healthy diet for everyone: include eating whole wheat foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, avoiding saturated fats and fast food. Limiting salt (sodium) consumption can help reduce bloating. Limiting your intake of caffeine, sugar, and alcohol can also be beneficial.
- Prevent and treat anemia
- Sports. Exercise can reduce menstrual pain
- Sexual activity. There are reports that orgasm can reduce menstrual cramps
- Warm feeling. Gluing warm compresses on the abdomen, or soaking in warm water, can reduce pain and cramps due to menstruation.
- Menstrual hygiene. Change pads every 4-6 hours. Avoid using perfume pads or tampons; female deodorants can irritate your female parts. Douching is not recommended because it can kill natural bacteria that live in the vagina. Bathing as usual is enough.